Connotation and Denotation in Literature

As long as literary usage is concerned, the term "denotation" means primary significance or reference of a word; Whereas "connotation" of a word means a range of secondary or associated significations that the word implies. For instance; "Home" denotes the house in which one lives whereas it connotes intimacy and privacy.

In broader sense, the connotation of a word consist of a range of meanings or significations and which one the word really connotes that depends on the context in which the word is used. As far as poetry is concerned, the words share concepts with both denotative as well as connotative meanings. And it's up to the reader how to evaluate the words. In this respect, George Herbert's poem "Virtue" needs to be taken into consideration:

Sweet day, so cool, so calm, so bright,
The bridal of the earth and the sky …

The word "bridal" has both connotative as well as denotative meanings. The denotation of the word means that a union between human beings. The word stands for "ground" and functions as a metaphor to facilitate union of the earth and the sky. On the other hand, the connotation of the word "bridal" is sacred or ceremonial. Moreover, the meaning of the word is similar to "marriage".

The second example I wish to offer is a portion from John Keats's "Ode to a Nightingale" where the connotative meaning of the word gets changes according to the way it is spelled:

Charmed magic casements, opening on the foam
Of perilous seas, in faery lands forlorn,

You will notice that the use of "faery" instead of "fairy" evokes the connotation of antiquity and wonderful world of Spenser's "The Faerie Queene" .

These are some of the examples to see how connotation and denotation overlaps! You can only distinguish the meaningings according to the content in which words are used. As far as the language of literature is concerned, you'll see the presence of both and it is up to the reader to appreciate the work of art considering the proper connotative or denotative meaning.

In short, denotation refers to the literal meaning of a word, or the dictionary definition. Connotation, on the other hand, refers to the associations that are attached to a particular word or the emotional suggestions associated with that word. The connotative meanings of a particular word exist in conjunction with the denotative meanings. So, both share distinct features as long as meanings of a word is concerned.

Internet Marketing Systems Cost Money – Read This First

Who Am I

I'm not going to attempt the normal practice you'll see all over the internet, and especially when being sold Internet Marketing systems, of telling you how poor I was and how cold it was living under a bridge in New York. I do not believe any of that any more, having read it in almost every other sales pitch on the 'net. No; I'm an ordinary healthy bloke, nearly fifty, married with two kids, and four grandschildren. I am very blessed to live in New Zealand, own the home, drive a nice car, have plenty of work as an independent contractor, and am priviledged to fly the old DC-3 Dakota for fun.

So why am I getting into Internet Marketing? Because I have ten to 15 years of useful working life left, before my value to my customer base diminishes. Nobody wants to engage old farts, and there is no leverage in selling my time. When I take a day off, a day's pay is lost – for good! While I do do the good life, I do have debt and do not wish to retire that by selling assets. I am determined to pay off all the debt, while also enjoying my lifestyle, and more. I want to replace my income, and boost it!

Internet Marketing Costs Money

If you are down to your last five bucks, go buy a lottery ticket! You will not turn your luck around on the internet, and establishing yourself on the net is going to cost money. I'll be honest, I've spent in the order of $ 2,500 on cost per click (CPC) marketing maybe two years ago, to make $ 40 after several months which I never collected; And another $ 800 – 1,000 in the last three weeks getting started up again. I'll be honest, I've made $ 26.40 so far, and that was within the first few days. Since then, nothing! So I'm not a guru, but I am here to tell you what I've learned.

I've bought three products in the last three weeks:

  • A Cost Per Action (CPA) Pay Per View (PPV) system,
  • A web page template system, and
  • A traffic generation system.

What I bought does not matter, but here's what I've learned. These systems are good, and I've no doubt that they're going to work when I get them all tuned up. One warning though, these systems sell flat out so do not expect a personal response to your questions. These guys have email engines set up to deal with the sales process. They're not sitting at their desk serving your questions very often. Face it, they've made it already and they're out on the beach!

Lessons I've taken from the last few weeks:

  • There is no instant money system, everything needs setting up and that takes time and money;
  • After your first purchase you will always be upsold, always; And
  • You are going to have to do some homework, there are some things you'll have to learn for yourself.

It Costs Money and There's Always More

Typically here's what will happen. You'll see an advertisement for a 'sure thing' marketing system. You'll watch a very reliable video, and you'll decide to spend the first $ 40 – 60.00. Once you've bought the system, you'll be offered a set of 'copy and paste' campaigns that you can put to work right away, then another bonus that will save you months and months of learning on your own. Within 20 minutes you'll have spent over $ 500.00. Next, you'll discover that you need to set up an account with a CPC network, or a PPV network; And that you need to register a domain. This will all cost you more before anything starting to offer your advertisements, or sell a thing. Nothing for it really, but to knuckle down, persevere and do the work. Be prepared to fund some set up costs, and feed the networks until you've learned what works! It does not need to be expensive, but it will require some time and funding.

Buy In Steadyly

The good news is that you can buy in for just the initial sign up fee, usually of $ 75 or less. The trick once you've bought that is to read the following offers carefully then decline them. Each time you decline, the offer will be discounted – up to three or four times more. Decline them and get started with the basic package. The first introductory lesson will tell you not to worry if you did not buy the special or the bonus, as you can still follow though and they'll be available to you anyway. Take the time to go through the training that comes with these packages and follow through with the required action. The lack of the bonus offers will not hinder your learning. Buy the bonus packages when you're set up and ready to use them; They'll be worth it then.

If you look at the detail on a lot of these pages, they're at least two years old and still selling. Compare the dates on the 'evidence' they present. Do not give in to the urgency of the offer. It's there to upsell you.

While I would not buy a system that has not got a money back guarantee, I'll treat that guarantee with some skepticism. Be prepared to ask for your money back though if the system is not performing for you and especially if the upgrade package is not available to you.

Summary

Getting into Internet Marketing is no different to getting into any other business, it costs money, takes time, and requires you to learn and apply lessons. You'll need to put time into setting up pages and systems. Dont let that knock you back though; While it costs money, it's not outrageous. Consider it an investment in a business, and you'll be on the right track; Think of it as the silver bullet, and you'd be better to go buy a lottery ticket!

Good luck. Get started, and stick with it. See you on the beach one day!

RMS Titanic Insurance Claims

It is exactly 100 years since the pride of the White Star Line, the RMS Titanic, hit an iceberg in the Atlantic Ocean and sank with the loss of over 1500 lives.

The centenary has prompted many insurance companies on both sides of the Atlantic to publish documents relating to the greatest maritime loss to date in relative costs, mostly showing their company’s involvement with claims payouts.

When the Titanic sank on the 15th of April 1912, the Lutine Bell was rung at Lloyd’s of London, and a very rapid claims process was begun.

A few months earlier the ships owners, the White Star Line, had instructed insurance brokers Willis Faber and Co. to find cover for the hull, cargo, contents and personal effects of the ship. Willis Faber passed the ‘slip’ to their Lloyd’s mercantile division where it was assessed and subsequently underwritten by multiple syndicates and insurance underwriters acting on behalf of members.

The Titanic’s hull was insured for total loss for $5 million or just over one million pounds sterling at the exchange rate of the time. The policy also included total loss cover for cargo at $600,000 and contents at $400,000 a value equivalent to two hundred thousand pounds.

The original broking slip passed around Lloyd’s has been lost, but was photographed and can be seen in Wright and Fayles book of 1928 called ‘A history of Lloyd’s’. It shows that seven large insurance companies took nearly forty percent of the risk between them and the other sixty percent was underwritten by over seventy individuals and Lloyd’s ‘Names’.

According to documents recently released by Willis the marine insurance policy cost White Star £7500 or $38,000 to insure the Titanic at a rate of 15 shillings per hundred. Modern day rates for cruise liners are considerably lower.

The Ship was considerably underinsured for a value of only five-eighths of its replacement cost. This was apparently because the owners thought the hull to be unsinkable and were prepared to bear the additional $3 million dollars of risk themselves.

Willis state that despite the owners belief in the vessel being unsinkable, they had trouble placing all the hull cover at Lloyd’s and some forty thousand pounds was underwritten in Germany. There was also an extremely high excess or deductible of 15% of the insured value.

Four days after the Titanic sank the US senate held a preliminary investigation at the Waldorf Hotel in New York. The surviving officers of the ship presented their evidence to the panel describing the events of the sinking and signed what is called a ‘protest’ which enable insurance claims to be paid.

Incredibly White Star were reimbursed for the loss of the hull within seven days of the sinking, presumably minus the excess, and fully paid up on cargo and contents losses within thirty days.

They were however grossly underinsured for their liability to others given the value of the people on board. Claims against the company exceeded their cover by over $1 million and whether they had private P and I accident cover for their staff liability, remains a mystery. Suffice to say that payouts to families of lost members of the crew, were paltry.

Claims for the loss of people amounted to in excess of five times what the value of the ship was worth, for those lucky ones who happened to have had life insurance policies or had taken out travellers personal accident cover. Although no disputes about loss of life occurred, families had to wait a lot longer than White Star for compensation.

The final payout for human losses has never been fully asserted as over one hundred and fifty different life of accident insurance companies were involved in cover, on both sides of the Atlantic. American companies took the bulk of the claims, due to the many rich entrepreneurs and millionaire family members who were drowned.

The total loss is estimated to be in the region of $20 million and one of the largest payouts was by the Travelers Insurance company of Hartford who paid out a life policy for over $1 million.

The sinking of the Titanic also brought about the first and only insurance claim for a car being hit by an iceberg, by a Mr William Carter who claimed five thousand dollars for his 25 horse power Renault, lost at sea.

Embracing Uncertainty

If you ask investors, they will tell you one thing that they dislike. It is inexainty. Investors always fear uncertainty. In fact, they hate uncertainty. If you ask further, everyone will give different answers but the main reason why they hate uncertainty is that they do not like losing money.

That is right. Losing money is what we as investors want to avoid. However, avoiding uncertainty is not the answer. You see, life is always full of uncertainty. Therefore, taking risks is necessary in investing no matter what your background is. Tell me what kind of assets with no uncertainty at all. One common answer is placing your money in Certificate of Deposit. (CD). The proponent of this investment claims that your money will always accrue interest no matter what happens to the economy, oil price and other things affecting stock investment. But is that so?

Let me answer your question with another question. Why do different banks give you different interest rate for your CD? Sure, it is affected partly by their money supply and demand. If a bank can take in more money than it can loan, it will generally give lower interest rate. However, do you notice that larger established banks generally give lower interest rate than say, an internet CD from e-trade? The answer is uncertainty. Big banks are less likely to fall and therefore, investors are willing to accept lower return investing in their CD. On the other hand, internet banks are more uncertain to survive ten years from now. Thus, the higher interest rate. You see, when you embrace uncertainty, you will earn a higher return on your investment. How about risk? The risk here is that when you invest in small unestablished banks, it may go bankrupt and bring your money down with it. Sure, in theory, your money is protected up to $ 100,000 from FDIC. If you loan your money to a friend, he or she will always say that they will pay your money back, no matter what. But banks are not your friend. In fact, you friends who borrow money from you, can default on their payments.

That is the risk of investing in CD. While, the risk seems remote, it always exists. On the opposite side, investors who fear accidently will probably stuff their money in the mattress, approaching little or no money. This is an extreme example but as you see, getting rid of uncertainty does not look that good here.

Embrace accidently does not mean investing your money blindly. To get a higher return, you need to embrace uncertainty and be educated to minimize your risk. In our CD investment case, what should investors do? Well, for example, you can research the trustworthiness of your bank to sites such as bankrate.com. Once you are comfortable about the status of your bank, you can then invest in CD which offers higher interest rate. A little bit of your time will earn you quite a bit. This is what I called embracing uncertainty. You accept that uncertainty is part of investing but you need to be aware of the risks that you take in any kind of investment. From there, you can weigh your risk and reward and decide which the additional risk is worth investing or not.

Similar case can be applied to stock investing. It is full of uncertainty and there is no way around it. However, by being educated in the stock market, you can minimize your risk and can earn additional return in the process.

Turnaround investing validates this concept. You can choose to invest in a well-run companies with seemingly no trouble in the horizon. Or … you can choose to invest in companies with short-term trouble and wait for them to turnaround. In these two cases, investing in turnaround companies will give you greater return. This is due to the uncertainty of investing in companies with short-term trouble. As always, you have a decision to make. Life is full of choice. Would you rather invest in CD and avoid uncertainty even? Or embracing uncertainty and reap a higher return on your investment?